Tutorial 4: Advanced Content Creation in Drupal

Creating Articles in Drupal

Articles in Drupal are a content type with a predefined set of fields that are optimized for time-sensitive content, media, and categorization. They’re an excellent way to publish content that benefits from being tagged, categorized, and featured on your site.

Step-by-Step Guide to Creating Articles

1. Access the Content Creation Area

    • To get started, navigate to Content in your Drupal admin toolbar, then click on Add Content. Here, select Article from the list of content types available.

2. Fill in the Article Details

    • Title: Provide a compelling title for your article. This will serve as the headline.
    • Body: Enter the main content of your article. Utilize the text editor to format your text, and don’t hesitate to incorporate images, links, and multimedia to enhance your article.
    • Tags: Use the Tags field to enter relevant keywords that describe your article. Tags help with site organization and can improve SEO and user navigation.
    • Image: Most Article content types come with an Image field by default. Use this to upload a relevant, eye-catching image representing your article’s topic. This image is often displayed as a thumbnail in listings or at the top of your article.

3. Set the URL Alias (Optional)

    • Creating a user-friendly URL alias for your article can improve SEO and make the link more memorable. Consider a structure like articles/your-article-title.

4. Configure Publishing Options

    • Decide on the visibility and publishing settings of your article. You can publish it immediately, save it as unpublished (draft), or schedule it for later publication. Ensure the Published option is checked if you want the article to go live right away.

5. Review and Save

    • Before saving, review your article for any errors or formatting issues. Once everything looks good, click the Save Your article will now be live on the site, accessible through its URL or any menus/tags it’s associated with.

6. Add to Menu (Optional)

    • If you want your article to be directly accessible from the main menu or another navigation structure, go to Structure > Menus in your Drupal admin. Add a new menu link pointing to your article, ensuring it’s placed appropriately for your site’s navigation design.

Creating Pages in Drupal

Step-by-Step Guide to Creating and Publishing Pages

1. Navigate to the Content Addition Area

    • From the Drupal admin toolbar, select Content and then click on Add content. This action displays the available content types. Choose Basic Page to create general-purpose web pages.

2. Enter Page Details

    • Title: Provide a title for your page. This title is critical as it typically appears as the page’s main heading (H1) and is used in navigation links.
    • Body: Add the body content of your page in the provided text area. Drupal’s rich text editor allows you to format text and insert images, links, and lists to make your content engaging and informative. For static pages like ‘Services’ or ‘Contact Us,’ ensure the content is clear and directly serves the intended purpose of the page.

3. Set the URL Alias (Optional)

    • It’s best practice to set a user-friendly URL alias for your pages. This enhances SEO and usability. Under the URL alias section, you can manually specify an alias, such as about-us, for an About Us page.

4. Adjust Menu Settings (Optional)

    • If you want this page to be accessible through the site’s main navigation or other menus, expand the Menu settings Check the box for Provide a menu link, then fill in the Menu link title, which is the text that will appear in your site’s navigation. Choose the parent item if this page should nest under another menu item, and set the weight to adjust its order among other menu items.

5. Configure Publishing Options

    • In the Publishing options section, you can control the visibility of your page. Make sure to check Published if you want the page to be live immediately upon saving. You can also control whether the page is promoted to the front page or sticky at the top of lists, though these options are more commonly used for articles and blog posts.

6. Review and Save Your Page

    • Before clicking the Save button, review your page for accuracy and completeness. Once saved, your page will be live on your Drupal site according to the publishing options and URL alias you’ve set.

7. View Your New Page

    • After saving, visit your new page on the front end of your Drupal site to ensure it appears as expected. This is also a good time to test any navigation links to the page to ensure they work correctly.

Tutorial 5: Content Editing and Publishing in Drupal

Modifying Content in Drupal

Keeping your website’s content updated is important for maintaining its relevance and accuracy. Drupal’s intuitive content management interface simplifies the process of editing and updating content.

Step-by-Step Guide to Editing Existing Content

1. Locate the Content to Be Edited

    • Access the content management area by navigating to Content in the Drupal admin toolbar. Here, you’ll see a list of all the content items on your site. You can use the filter options to find the specific content you wish to edit quickly.

2. Access the Edit Form

    • Next to each content item in the list, you’ll find an Edit Clicking on this link will take you to the content item’s edit form. If you’re viewing the content on the front end and have the appropriate permissions, you can also access the edit form by clicking the Edit tab directly above the content.

3. Make Your Changes

    • On the edit form, you’ll see the same fields that were available when the content was first created. Make any necessary changes to the content, such as updating text in the body, changing the title, adding or removing tags, or updating images. The Drupal editor allows you to make comprehensive edits to ensure your content meets your current needs.

4. Update URL Alias (Optional)

    • If your edits significantly change the content’s focus or you want to improve the URL structure for SEO, consider updating the URL alias. However, be cautious when changing URLs for established content, as this can affect search engine rankings and user bookmarks. Using redirects can mitigate these issues.

5. Review Publishing Options

    • Review the Publishing options to ensure they’re set according to your preferences. For instance, you might decide to temporarily unpublish a piece of content while you make extensive edits or schedule the updated content to be published later.

6. Save the Updated Content

    • Once you’re satisfied with your edits, click the Save button at the bottom of the edit form. Your changes will be immediately applied and visible on the live site, assuming the content is published.

7. Review the Updated Content

    • After saving, it’s good practice to review the content on your site to ensure all changes appear as expected and that the layout and formatting are correct. Check any internal links or referenced content to ensure everything is still accurate and functional.

Deleting Content in Drupal

Step-by-Step Guide to Removing Content

1. Locate the Content to Be Deleted

    • To begin, navigate to the Content section in your Drupal admin toolbar. This area lists all the content items on your site. Use the filter options at the top of the page to find the specific content item you want to delete.

2. Review the Content Before Deletion

    • Before proceeding with the deletion, it’s important to review the content and ensure it’s the correct item you intend to remove. Consider the implications of deleting the content, such as broken links or lost SEO value. If the content is linked from other pages or external sites, you may want to set up a redirect or provide an alternative resource.

3. Access the Delete Option

    • Once you’ve located the content item in the list, click on the Edit link next to it. This will take you to the content editing page. On this page, alongside the Save, Preview, and other options, you’ll find the Delete button.

4. Confirm Deletion

    • Clicking the Delete button will take you to a confirmation page. Drupal will ask you to confirm that you indeed wish to delete the selected content. This step is crucial to prevent accidental deletions. Review the information provided to ensure it’s the correct content item.

5. Complete the Deletion Process

    • If you’re sure about deleting the content, click the Delete button on the confirmation page. Once confirmed, Drupal will remove the content from your site and notify you that the item has been deleted.

6. Check for Orphaned Content or Broken Links

    • After deleting content, it’s good practice to check your site for any orphaned content that may have relied on the deleted item, such as images or related articles. Additionally, ensure no broken links might lead visitors to a “Page not found” error. Tools and modules are available in Drupal to help identify and fix broken links.

7. Consider Redirects for Deleted Content

    • For content that received significant traffic or is linked from external sites, consider setting up a redirect to a relevant page on your site to maintain user experience and SEO value. The Redirect module can help manage such redirects easily within Drupal.

Publishing Content in Drupal

Content Publication Options

Drupal offers several publishing options to give you control over the visibility and timing of your content.

Here’s a step-by-step guide to understanding and using these options effectively:

1. Published or Unpublished

    • Every piece of content in Drupal has a published status. By default, content is saved as unpublished, meaning it’s not visible to the public or regular site users until you decide to publish it. You can toggle the publish status from the content edit form under the Publishing options

2. Publishing Immediately

    • To make content available on your site right away, ensure that the Published checkbox is selected in the Publishing options tab when creating or editing your content. Once you save the content with this option selected, it will be immediately visible on your site according to the permissions of the content type.

3. Scheduling Content Publication

    • If you want to prepare content in advance and have it published automatically at a future date, you can use the Scheduler module, which is not included in the core but can be downloaded from Drupal.org. After installing the module, you can set your content’s publication date and time.

4. Restricting Access by Role

    • Drupal allows you to control which user roles can view published content. This is managed through the Permissions page under People in your admin menu. Here, you can set permissions for each content type based on user roles, such as anonymous users, authenticated users, and custom roles you’ve created.

5. Promoted to the Front Page

    • You can promote content to the front page for content types like articles and blog posts. This makes the content more prominent and accessible to visitors. You can select this option in the Publishing options tab.

6. Sticky at the Top of Lists

    • Regardless of other sorting criteria, you can use the “Sticky at the top of lists” option in Publishing options if you want specific content to remain at the top of lists or views. This is particularly useful for important announcements or timeless content you wish to highlight.

7. Revision Control

    • Drupal also offers revision control, allowing you to save and review previous versions of your content. This is useful for tracking changes and rolling back to earlier versions if needed. You can enable revisions for each piece of content in the Publishing options tab by checking the Create new revision

Tutorial 6: Leveraging Advanced Drupal Features in Drupal

Web Services in Drupal

Drupal 8 and later versions come with significant support for web services, making it a fully RESTful platform. This capability allows for the creation, reading, updating, and deletion (CRUD) of Drupal content from external applications, making Drupal an excellent choice for headless or decoupled applications.

Step-by-Step Guide to Creating and Consuming RESTful Resources

1. Enable RESTful Web Services Modules

    • Drupal includes several modules for RESTful services, such as RESTful Web Services (rest), Serialization (serialization), and Hypertext Application Language (hal). Navigate to Extend in your Drupal admin toolbar and ensure these modules are enabled.

2. Configure Permissions for RESTful Resources

    • Go to People > Permissions. Here, you’ll need to grant appropriate permissions to access and manipulate resources via REST. Look for permissions under “RESTful Web Services” and assign them according to the roles that should have access to REST APIs.

3. Set Up REST Resource Configuration

    • REST resource configuration can be configured in the REST UI module (if installed) or by editing the rest.resource.entity.node.yml configuration file directly. Specify which resources are available, the supported formats (e.g., json, xml, hal+json), and the authentication methods (e.g., basic_auth, cookie).

4. Create a RESTful Resource

    • Once RESTful services are enabled and configured, you can create resources with which external applications can interact. For example, to expose content of type “Article,” ensure the REST settings for that content type allow GET (retrieve), POST (create), PATCH (update), and DELETE operations.

5. Consume a RESTful Resource

    • To consume a RESTful resource, you can use tools like Postman or code in languages like JavaScript or Python. For instance, to retrieve data from your Drupal site, you would make a GET request to the endpoint URL configured for the resource (e.g., http://yourdrupalsite.com/entity/node/1?_format=json).

6. Create Content with a POST Request

    • To create content via REST, send a POST request to the endpoint URL with the content data in the request body. Ensure your request headers include Content-Type (e.g., application/json) and an Authorization token if required.

7. Update and Delete Content

    • Similar to creating content, you can update existing content with a PATCH request, providing the new data in the request body. To delete content, send a DELETE request to the specific resource URL.

Theme System Improvements

Step-by-Step Guide to Theming with Drupal 10

1. Understanding the Drupal Theme System

    • Drupal’s theme system allows you to control the look and feel of your site. Themes include templates, stylesheets (CSS), JavaScript (JS), and other assets. Drupal 10 continues to use Twig as its templating engine, which separates content and data from the layout, making themes easier to develop and maintain.

2. Choosing a Base Theme

    • A base theme is a starting point for your custom theme. Drupal 10 introduces a new default theme, Olivero, which is modern, accessible, and responsive. You can choose to create a sub-theme of Olivero or another base theme to leverage its features and styling as a foundation for your customizations.

3. Creating a Sub-theme

    • To create a sub-theme, create a new directory in the themes/custom directory of your Drupal installation. The name of your directory will be the machine name of your theme.
    • Inside your theme directory, create a .info.yml file (e.g., info.yml). This file declares your theme to Drupal and sets basic properties like name, description, and base theme.

Example mytheme.info.yml content:

name: MyTheme
type: theme
description: ‘A custom theme based on Olivero.’
core_version_requirement: ^10
base theme: olivero
  – mytheme/global-styling
  header: Header
 primary_menu: ‘Primary menu’
  content: Content
  footer: Footer

4. Adding Stylesheets and JavaScript

    • Create a libraries.yml file in your theme directory to define libraries (groups of CSS or JS files). For example, to add global styling:

      css/style.css: {}

Then, create the css directory and add your style.css file with your custom styles.

5. Overriding Templates

    • Copy templates from the base theme or Drupal core that you want to override into your theme’s templates directory. You can then modify these templates to change your site’s HTML output. Remember to clear the cache to see your changes take effect.

6. Enable Your Theme

    • Go to the Appearance section of your Drupal admin area, find your theme, click Install, and set as default to activate it.

7. Customize Your Theme

    • Continue to refine your theme by adding more styles, overriding templates, and utilizing Twig to dynamically display content. Explore Drupal’s theme system documentation and the Twig documentation for more advanced techniques and best practices.

Configuration Management

Step-by-Step Guide to Managing Configuration

1. Understanding Configuration in Drupal

    • Drupal’s configuration consists of settings related to how your site functions, such as content types, views, fields, and theme settings. These configurations are stored in the database by default but can be exported to YAML files. This separation of content and configuration aids in the deployment process across different environments.

2. Accessing Configuration Management

    • Navigate to Configuration > Development > Configuration synchronization in your Drupal admin toolbar. This page is the hub for all configuration management tasks, including importing, exporting, and synchronizing configurations.

3. Exporting Configuration

    • To export your site’s current configuration, click on the Export You can choose to export the entire site configuration or single items. For a full site export, click Export under “Full archive,” which downloads a tar.gz file containing all of your site’s configuration YAML files.
    • For exporting specific configurations (e.g., a view or content type), use the Single item tab, select the configuration type and item you wish to export, and then copy the YAML code.

4. Importing Configuration

    • To import configurations to your site, navigate to the Import Similar to export, you can do a full site import or single item import.
    • Upload the tar.gz file you exported from another environment for a full site import. Drupal will automatically detect any differences and allow you to review them before applying the changes.
    • For single items, paste the YAML code into the provided text area and click Import.

5. Reviewing and Synchronizing Changes

    • Before changes are applied, Drupal provides a synchronization interface to review what will be updated, added, or deleted, especially for full-site imports. This review step is crucial for avoiding unintended changes.
    • If you’re satisfied with the changes, proceed with the synchronization. Drupal will apply the configuration changes to your site.

6. Managing Configurations in Code

    • It’s a best practice to keep your configuration in code and under version control. This approach allows you to track changes over time, share configurations across development teams, and restore previous configurations if needed.
    • You can use Drupal’s configuration directories settings in settings.php to set a configuration directory outside of your database and web root. This is where you can store your exported YAML files.

7. Using Configuration in Deployment Workflows

    • When moving configurations from a local development environment to a staging or production environment, use the export and import process described above. This ensures that your configurations are consistent across all environments and simplifies deployment.

Accessibility Enhancements

Creating Accessible Content and Layouts

Creating accessible content and layouts involves understanding and implementing web accessibility guidelines, such as the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG). Drupal provides tools and features that support these efforts, making it straightforward to adhere to best practices.

1. Use Semantic HTML

    • Ensure that your content uses semantic HTML markup. This means using the appropriate tags for headings (<h1> through <h6>), paragraphs (<p>), lists (<ul>, <ol>), and other elements. Semantic HTML helps screen readers and assistive technologies understand the structure and importance of your content.

2. Add Alt Text to Images            

    • Always provide alt text for images. Alt text should concisely describe the image’s content or function. This is crucial for users who rely on screen readers. Drupal’s image fields prompt you to enter alt text when uploading images.

3. Ensure Sufficient Color Contrast

    • Color contrast between text and its background is vital for readability, especially for users with visual impairments. Use tools like the WebAIM Contrast Checker to ensure your color choices meet WCAG guidelines.

4. Make Links Descriptive

    • Use descriptive link text that indicates the link’s destination or function rather than generic text like “click here.” This helps users understand where a link will take them without needing to read the surrounding text.

5. Create Keyboard-Navigable Menus and Components

    • Ensure that all interactive elements, including menus and custom components, are navigable and usable with a keyboard alone. This includes providing focus indicators for active elements.

6. Use ARIA Roles and Attributes Where Necessary

    • ARIA (Accessible Rich Internet Applications) roles and attributes provide additional semantics and improve accessibility when HTML alone is insufficient. However, use ARIA sparingly and only when there’s no native HTML alternative, as improper use can hinder accessibility.

7. Test Your Site’s Accessibility

    • Regularly test your site with accessibility tools and checkers, such as axe or WAVE, and consider manual testing with screen readers. Additionally, Drupal’s Accessibility Checker module can help identify and fix issues directly within the content editing process.

8. Follow Drupal’s Accessibility Best Practices

    • Drupal provides guidelines and best practices for creating accessible sites. Familiarize yourself with these resources and incorporate accessibility into your development workflow from the start.

Performance and Caching

Advanced Caching Mechanisms in Drupal 10

1. Cache API

    • Drupal’s Cache API provides a flexible system for storing and retrieving data from cache backends. Use the Cache API to cache custom data or computations that are expensive to generate. To finely control cache behavior, you can specify cache tags, bins, and contexts.

2. Cache Tags

    • Cache tags are identifiers attached to cache entries, allowing for precise invalidation when the underlying data changes. For example, if a node tagged with node:1 is updated, caches with that tag can be invalidated, ensuring users see the updated content.

3. Cache Contexts

    • Cache contexts provide a way to vary cached content based on specific conditions, such as the user’s roles, languages, or themes. This is particularly useful for dynamic sites where content may change based on user interaction or preferences.

4. BigPipe

    • The BigPipe module, included in Drupal core, allows for faster initial page loads by using a technique called lazy loading for page elements. BigPipe sends the main page content to the browser first, then streams dynamic parts as they become available. This improves perceived performance for users.

5. Render Caching

    • Drupal uses render caching to cache the output of rendered elements. This includes entities, blocks, and views. By default, Drupal intelligently caches these components based on their properties, but you can customize cache settings for custom blocks or views to optimize performance.

6. Dynamic Page Cache

    • The Dynamic Page Cache module, enabled by default in Drupal, caches pages for anonymous and authenticated users, taking cache contexts into account. This means that entire pages can be cached and served quickly, even when content varies between users.

7. Internal Page Cache

    • For sites with a lot of anonymous traffic, the Internal Page Cache module can cache entire pages for anonymous users without personalized content. This module can significantly reduce response times for such users.

8. Configuration and Best Practices

    • To configure caching settings, navigate to Configuration > Development > Performance in your Drupal admin area. Here, you can adjust cache lifetimes, aggregation settings for CSS and JavaScript, and more.
    • Always test caching settings in a staging environment before applying them to production. Monitor performance using tools like Google PageSpeed Insights or WebPageTest to identify areas for improvement.

Tutorial 7: Basic Module Development in Drupal 10

Introduction to Modules in Drupal

Modules are packages of PHP code that extend Drupal’s core capabilities. They can add new features, alter existing functionality, or integrate your Drupal site with external services and APIs. Understanding how modules work and how to develop them is essential for anyone looking to customize their Drupal site beyond what’s possible with core and contributed modules alone.

What Are Drupal Modules?

Modules in Drupal are similar to plugins or extensions in other software. They are packages of code that extend or alter the functionality of a Drupal site. Modules can range from small tweaks, like customizing user login behavior, to large-scale features, like e-commerce systems.

Types of Modules

The following are the types of modules in Drupal:

Role of Modules in Drupal

  • Modules extend Drupal’s core capabilities, allowing you to add custom content types, fields, and functionality. They play an important role in customizing your site to fit specific needs, improving both the site builder and end-user experience.
  • Modules can also alter existing Drupal functionality, allowing you to adjust how Drupal behaves without modifying core files. This modular approach ensures that customizations are preserved across core updates.

Getting Started with Module Development

  • To develop a custom module, you’ll need a basic understanding of PHP and familiarity with Drupal’s API and coding standards. The Drupal community provides extensive documentation and resources to help developers learn these skills.
  • The process begins with setting up a module folder and creating an .info.yml file to declare your module to Drupal. From there, you can add controllers, forms, and other components to build out your module’s functionality.

Best Practices

  • Follow Drupal’s coding standards and best practices to ensure your module is secure, efficient, and compatible with Drupal’s ecosystem.
  • Leverage Drupal’s API and hooks system to interact with core functionalities and other modules. This ensures that your module can coexist with other components of the Drupal system without conflicts.

Finding and Installing Modules

Step 1: Finding Modules

Visit Drupal.org

Use Search and Filters

  • Utilize the search functionality to find modules based on keywords related to your desired functionality. Filters can further refine search results by stability, compatibility with Drupal 10, and other criteria.

Evaluate Module Viability

  • When considering a module, evaluate its documentation, the frequency of updates, the number of sites using it, and community reviews. This information is crucial for assessing the module’s reliability and fit for your project.

Community and Support

  • Pay attention to the module’s issue queue and support forums. A vibrant community and active maintainer(s) are good indicators of a well-supported module.

Step 2: Installing and Enabling a Module

Download the Module

  • Once you’ve identified a module you wish to install, you can download it directly from its org project page. You can download the module as a tar.gz or zip file.

Use Composer (Recommended)

  • Using Composer is the recommended method to manage modules for Drupal 8 and later, including Drupal 10. To install a module using Composer, run the following command in your Drupal root directory:

composer require drupal/module_name

Replace module_name with the machine name of the module you want to install. Composer will handle downloading the module and managing any dependencies.

Enable the Module

  • After downloading, the module must be enabled to be active on your site. This can be done through the Drupal admin interface or using Drush, Drupal’s command-line tool.
  • Admin Interface: Navigate to Extend in your Drupal admin toolbar, find the module in the list, check its checkbox, and click the Install button at the bottom of the page.
  • Drush: Run the following command:

drush en module_name

Configure the Module

  • Many modules come with configuration options that need to be set up before the module is fully functional. After enabling a module, look for a configuration link on the module’s page under Extend, or navigate to the Configuration tab in your Drupal admin area to find settings related to your new module.

Creating a Custom Module

Step 1: Setting Up a Module Folder and .info.yml File

Create Your Module Folder

  • Navigate to the modules directory within your Drupal installation. Within modules, create a new directory named custom if it doesn’t already exist. This is where all your custom modules will live to keep them separate from core and contributed modules.
  • Inside the custom directory, create another directory for your module. The name of this directory is the machine name of your module, typically in lowercase and underscores for spaces (e.g., my_custom_module).

Create the .info.yml File

  • In your module’s directory, create a file named after your module with an extension of .info.yml (e.g., info.yml). This YAML file tells Drupal about your module.
  • Open the .info.yml file in a text editor and add the following basic information:

name: ‘My Custom Module’
type: module
description: ‘A custom module for doing amazing things!’
package: Custom
core_version_requirement: ^10

This YAML file includes the human-readable name of your module, its machine name, a brief description, the package under which it should be grouped in the Drupal UI (optional), and the core version compatibility.

Step 2: Writing a Basic Module

Create a .module File (Optional)

  • While not always necessary, a .module file is where you can include hooks and custom PHP functions that alter or extend Drupal’s default behavior. Create a file named module in your module’s directory.
  • To start, you can leave this file empty. As you grow more comfortable with Drupal’s API, you may add functions that interact with Drupal’s core features.

Implement a Basic Hook

  • One of the simplest hooks to implement is hook_help(), which provides help text on the module’s functionality. Open the module file and add the following code:


 * Implements hook_help().
 * Displays help for the My Custom Module.
function my_custom_module_help($route_name, $route_match) {
  if ($route_name == ‘help.page.my_custom_module’) {
    return ‘<p>’ . t(‘This is a custom module to add amazing functionalities to our Drupal site.’) . ‘</p>’;

This function checks if the help page for your module is being accessed and returns a simple help text.

Enable Your Module

  • With your .info.yml and optional .module file in place, go to the Extend section of your Drupal admin dashboard to enable your custom module. You can also use Drush with the command drush en my_custom_module.

Verify Installation

  • After enabling, you can go to the help section (/admin/help) in your Drupal site to see if your module’s help text is displayed, indicating that your module is active and working.

Creating a custom module in Drupal 10 can be as simple or complex as your site requires. Starting with these basic steps introduces you to the module development process, providing a foundation for building more sophisticated functionalities as you become more familiar with Drupal’s API and hook system.

Tutorial 8: Managing Media and Files in Drupal 10

Uploading and Managing Media

Drupal’s Media Library offers an integrated solution to handle media assets, allowing you to upload, organize, and select media directly within content creation workflows or through the dedicated Media section of the admin area.

Using the Media Library

1. Access the Media Library

    • Navigate to Content > Media in your Drupal admin toolbar to access the Media Library. Here, you’ll see all the media items uploaded to your site. The Media Library provides a centralized overview of your media assets, making browsing, searching, and managing your files easy.

2. Adding New Media

    • To add new media, click the + Add media button at the top of the Media Library page. Drupal allows you to choose from different media types, such as Image, Video, Document, etc., depending on the types configured on your site.
    • Select the appropriate media type for the file you’re uploading. Fill in the required fields, such as Name and Media source (where you’ll upload the file or specify the URL for external media). Fields like Alt text for images are crucial for accessibility and SEO.

3. Organizing Media with Fields

    • When adding or editing media items, you can use fields to organize and categorize your media. Fields such as tags or categories help sort and filter media within the library. Consider creating and using taxonomy terms for consistent categorization.

4. Reusing Media

    • One of the strengths of the Media Library is the ability to reuse media across your site. When adding media to content, you can select from existing items in the Media Library, avoiding unnecessary duplication of files. This is particularly useful for commonly used assets like logos or author bio pictures.

5. Editing and Deleting Media

    • Each media item in the library can be edited or deleted. To edit, click on the media item and then click the Edit button to change any details or replace the file. To delete, use the Delete button found on the edit form. Be cautious with deletion, as it will remove the media item from any content it’s currently used in.

6. Configuring the Media Library

    • The Media Library’s behavior can be customized via the admin area’s Structure > Media types Here, you can define new media types, manage fields for each type, and configure form and display settings to tailor the media handling process to your needs.

7. Permissions and Access

    • Control who can add, edit, or delete media items by configuring permissions under People > Permissions. Permissions can be set based on user roles, ensuring only authorized users can manage media content.

By leveraging the Media Library in Drupal 10, you can streamline the management of your site’s media content, enhancing your content creation process with efficient media handling capabilities. The ability to easily upload, organize, and reuse media assets across your site saves time and ensures a consistent and engaging user experience.

User Management and Permissions

User management is fundamental to maintaining a Drupal site, encompassing everything from creating user accounts to assigning roles and configuring permissions. Effective user management ensures that site administrators can control what users can see and do on the site.

Creating User Accounts

1. Manual Account Creation

  • Navigate to People in the Drupal admin toolbar and click Add user. Fill in the required fields, such as Username and Email address. You can set an initial password for the account or allow the user to receive an email to set their password.
  • Decide whether the account should be activated immediately or require email verification. After filling out the details, click the Create new account

2. User Registration

  • Drupal also allows users to register their accounts. To configure this feature, go to Configuration > People > Account settings. Here, you can adjust settings related to registration, including whether users can register without admin approval if they should receive an email verification, and what information they must provide.

Configuring User Roles and Permissions

1. Understanding Roles

2. Creating New Roles

  • To create a new role, go to People > Roles and click the Add role Provide a name for the role (e.g., Content Editor, Site Moderator) and save it.

3. Assigning Permissions to Roles

  • Once you set up your roles, you can assign permissions to them. Navigate to People > Permissions. Here, you’ll see a list of available permissions and checkboxes for each role.
  • Permissions control access to various features and areas of your site, such as creating content, administering menus, and managing user accounts. Carefully assign permissions according to the responsibilities of each role. For example, you might allow Content Editors to create and edit content but not change site configuration.

4. Assigning Roles to Users

  • Users can be assigned one or more roles, granting them the combined permissions of those roles. To assign roles to a user, edit the user account under People, find the Roles section, and select the roles you wish to assign to the user.

5. Best Practices

  • Principle of Least Privilege: Only grant users the permissions they need to perform their tasks. This minimizes potential security risks.
  • Test Configurations: Create test accounts with different roles to ensure permissions are correctly configured, and users can only access appropriate features.

Effective user management and permission settings are crucial for the security and functionality of your Drupal site. They ensure that users have a tailored experience that matches their roles, whether they’re site visitors, content creators, or administrators. You can maintain a well-organized and secure Drupal environment by carefully planning your roles and permissions

Tutorial 9: Extending Drupal 10

One of Drupal’s greatest strengths is its flexibility, largely afforded by the vast library of community-contributed modules. These modules extend the functionality of Drupal, allowing you to add new features, integrate with other systems, and customize your site’s behavior without writing custom code.

Overview of Community-Contributed Modules

The Drupal community is an active and vibrant ecosystem of developers, designers, and users who contribute to the platform’s growth by creating modules that add to or enhance Drupal’s core capabilities. These contributions range from small utilities that perform specific tasks to large-scale solutions for e-commerce, SEO, social media integration, and more.

With tens of thousands of modules available on Drupal.org, the community-contributed modules are a testament to Drupal’s adaptability and the community’s commitment to the platform’s success.

Selecting and Evaluating Modules

Finding the right modules for your Drupal site can be daunting, given the vast selection available. However, by following a few key steps, you can make informed decisions that benefit your site in the long term.

1. Define Your Needs

  • Before diving into the module repository, clearly define the functionality you need. This helps narrow your search and focus on modules that specifically meet your requirements.

2. Search on Drupal.org

  • Useorg’s search and filtering tools to find modules. You can filter by Drupal version compatibility, module status (stable, maintenance fixes only, etc.), and categories.

3. Read the Module’s Project Page

  • The project page provides important information about the module, including its features, installation instructions, documentation, and version compatibility. Pay attention to the module’s maintenance status and whether it’s actively supported for Drupal 10.

4. Check Usage Statistics

  • The number of sites reported to use a module can indicate its reliability and community trust. Modules with higher usage are often more tested and supported.

5. Review Issue Queue

6. Assess Documentation and Community Support

7. Test in a Development Environment

  • Always test modules in a development environment before deploying them on your production site. This allows you to evaluate the module’s functionality and ensure it integrates well with your site without risking your live environment.

8. Consider Module Dependencies

  • Some modules depend on other modules to function. Ensure you understand and review any dependencies for compatibility and potential conflicts.

By carefully selecting and evaluating community-contributed modules, you can greatly enhance your Drupal site’s functionality while maintaining its security and performance. The goal is to choose well-supported, actively maintained modules, and aligned with your site’s current and future needs.

Security and Maintenance

Security and maintenance are important in keeping your Drupal site secure, fast, and reliable. Drupal’s strong security framework and regular updates help protect against vulnerabilities, but site administrators also play an important role in maintaining site security and performance.

Basic Security Best Practices

Use Strong Passwords

  • Ensure all user accounts use strong, unique passwords, especially those with administrative privileges. Consider implementing a password policy for your users that enforces complexity and regular changes.

Keep User Roles and Permissions Tight

  • Adhere to the principle of least privilege by assigning users only the permissions they need to perform their roles. Regularly review and adjust permissions as necessary.

Enable HTTPS

  • Use HTTPS for your entire site to protect data in transit. Obtain an SSL/TLS certificate and configure your server to redirect all HTTP traffic to HTTPS.

Use Two-Factor Authentication (2FA)

  • Enhance login security by implementing two-factor authentication for user accounts, particularly for administrators. This can be achieved with modules like TFA (Two Factor Authentication).

Regularly Review and Update User Accounts

  • Periodically review user accounts to deactivate or remove those no longer needed or inactive.

Secure Configuration Settings

  • Ensure that your site’s configuration settings are secure. This includes disabling the PHP filter module, restricting file permissions, and using secure private file paths.

Backup Regularly

  • Implement a regular backup schedule for your site’s database and files. Store backups in a secure location and test them periodically to ensure they can be restored.

Monitor and Respond to Security Advisories

  • Stay informed about security advisories the Drupal Security Team posted and respond promptly by applying necessary updates or patches.

Keeping Drupal Updated

Update Core and Contributed Projects

  • Regularly update Drupal core and any contributed modules or themes. Updates often include security patches and bug fixes essential for maintaining site security and functionality.

Use the Update Manager

  • Drupal’s Update Manager module notifies you of available updates for core and contributed projects. Configure it to check for updates and notify you via email.

Apply Updates in a Timely Manner

  • Once notified of updates, especially security updates, apply them as soon as possible. Delaying updates can leave your site vulnerable to attacks.

Test Updates in a Staging Environment

  • Before applying updates to your live site, test them in a staging environment to ensure they don’t cause issues with your site’s functionality or appearance.

Stay Informed About Drupal Developments

Following these basic security best practices and keeping your Drupal site updated are fundamental steps in safeguarding your site against vulnerabilities, ensuring its integrity, and maintaining a trustworthy presence for your users.

Tutorial 10: Working with the Drupal API

Drupal’s extensive API (Application Programming Interface) allows developers to extend and customize virtually every aspect of Drupal’s functionality. For beginners, getting familiar with Drupal’s core APIs can significantly enhance your ability to build custom features and streamline your site’s operations.

Overview of the Most Useful Drupal APIs for Beginners

Form API: Creating Custom Forms

What is Form API?

The Form API (FAPI) allows you to create and manipulate forms in Drupal. It provides a structured array format for generating forms, handling form validation, and processing form submissions.

Basic Usage:

To create a custom form, define a form constructor function that returns a render array defining the form elements. Utilize Drupal’s hook system to specify validation and submit handlers.

Example snippet for a simple custom form:

function mymodule_myform() {
  $form = [];
  $form[‘my_textfield’] = [
    ‘#type’ => ‘textfield’,
    ‘#title’ => t(‘Enter your name’),
  $form[‘submit’] = [
    ‘#type’ => ‘submit’,
    ‘#value’ => t(‘Submit’),
  return $form;

Validation and Submission

Implement validation and submit handlers to process the form data. Validation handlers can check for errors before data is processed, and submit handlers execute the final form processing, such as saving data or sending an email.

Here’s an example that demonstrates how you might write these handlers for a simple form. This example assumes you have a form defined with an ID of my_custom_form.

Define a Validation Handler

The validation handler function checks for errors in the form data before it’s processed. If an error is found, it’s reported back to the user.

function my_custom_form_validate($form, &$form_state) {
  if (strlen($form_state[‘values’][‘my_textfield’]) < 5) {
    // This will prevent the form from being submitted and show an error.
    form_set_error(‘my_textfield’, t(‘The text field must have at least 5 characters.’));

Define a Submit Handler

The submit handler is called after the form passes validation. It processes the form data, performing actions like saving information to the database or sending an email.

function my_custom_form_submit($form, &$form_state) {
  // Perform an action with the form data, such as saving it to the database.
  db_insert(‘my_custom_table’) // Assuming ‘my_custom_table’ is your database table.
      ‘my_column’ => $form_state[‘values’][‘my_textfield’],

  // Display a message to the user.
  drupal_set_message(t(‘Your form has been submitted.’));

Attaching Handlers to Your Form

You need to specify these handlers in your form definition by adding them to the form array.

Here’s how you might adjust your form definition to include the validation and submit handlers:

function my_custom_form($form, &$form_state) {
  $form[‘my_textfield’] = array(
    ‘#type’ => ‘textfield’,
    ‘#title’ => t(‘Enter something’),

  $form[‘submit’] = array(
    ‘#type’ => ‘submit’,
    ‘#value’ => t(‘Submit’),

  // Attach the validation and submit handlers.
  $form[‘#validate’][] = ‘my_custom_form_validate’;
  $form[‘#submit’][] = ‘my_custom_form_submit’;
  return $form;

This example demonstrates how to add simple validation to ensure a text field has at least 5 characters and a submit handler that could save the form data to a database and display a confirmation message.

Database API: Basic Database Operations

What is Database API?

The Database API provides a structured, abstracted way to interact with the database, supporting dynamic queries, security, and flexibility. It helps prevent SQL injection vulnerabilities through the use of prepared statements.

Basic Usage

Perform database operations like select, insert, update, and delete through the Database API. Use the db_select(), db_insert(), db_update(), and db_delete() functions to construct and execute queries.

Example snippet for querying the database:

$result = db_select(‘my_table’, ‘m’)
  ->condition(‘published’, 1)

Render API: Altering and Customizing Page Output

What is Render API?

The Render API allows you to control the output of your site through render arrays, which define the structure of a page’s content and how it should be displayed.

Basic Usage:

Use render arrays to build and manipulate page content. Render arrays can be modified in hooks, such as hook_preprocess_HOOK(), to alter the output before it is rendered.

function mymodule_preprocess_block(&$variables) {
  if ($variables[‘plugin_id’] == ‘my_custom_block’) {
    $variables[‘content’][‘#markup’] = t(‘This is updated content for the custom block.’);

By familiarizing yourself with these core APIs, you gain valuable tools for customizing and extending your Drupal site. Whether creating custom forms, querying the database, or manipulating the site’s output, Drupal’s APIs provide a structured, secure, and efficient way to achieve your development goals.

Tutorial 3: Content Management in Drupal

Creating Front Page in Drupal

The front page in Drupal is the first page visitors see when visiting your site. By default, Drupal displays a list of the latest content marked as “Promoted to the front page.” However, Drupal allows you to customize this behavior and design your front page according to your needs.

Step-by-Step Guide to Designating and Customizing the Front Page

1. Designate a Custom Front Page

    • Navigate to Configuration > System > Basic site settings.
    • In the Front page section, you’ll see a field for “Default front page.” Here, you can enter the path of any content (node) you wish to use as the front page. For example, if you’ve created a Basic Page (node) with your welcome message and key information, you can put its path here, like node/1.

2. Create Custom Content for the Front Page

    • If you haven’t already created the content for your front page, go to Content > Add content and choose the content type you’d like to create (e.g., Basic Page). Fill in your content and ensure it’s published.
    • Remember your new content’s URL alias or node ID, as you’ll need this to set it as the front page.

3. Remove the Default Front Page Content Listing

    • If you prefer not to show the default listing of recent content on the front page, leave the “Default front page” field blank and create a Basic Page or another content type as your custom front page.
    • Alternatively, customize what content appears on the default front page by managing the content visibility settings (e.g., “Promoted to the front page”).

4. Customize the Front Page Layout

    • Use the Block layout to add, remove, or rearrange blocks on the front page. Navigate to Structure > Block layout.
    • Some themes and modules allow for more advanced layout customization, offering different regions and layout options for your front page.

5. Use Views for Dynamic Front Page Content

    • For a more dynamic front page, you can use the Views module (included with Drupal) to create a custom view. This allows you to dynamically display content such as the latest articles, upcoming events, or featured products.
    • Create a new View (at Structure > Views > Add new view) and configure it to display content as you wish. You can then set this view as your front page in the “Default front page” setting or place it as a block on your front page.

Creating Static Pages in Drupal

Static pages are essential components of any website, providing vital information about the site, its mission, policies, contact details, and more. In Drupal, static pages can be created using the Basic Page content type, designed for content that is less likely to change frequently.

Step-by-Step Guide to Creating Static Pages

1. Access the Content Addition Page

    • Navigate to Content in the top menu of your Drupal admin interface, and click on Add content. Here, you’ll see a list of available content types.

2. Select the Basic Page Content Type

    • Click on Basic Page, which is typically used for creating static content. This action will take you to the content creation form for a Basic Page.

3. Fill in the Basic Page Details

    • Title: Enter the title of your page. This title will also be used as the main heading (H1) of your page.
    • Body: Add the content of your page. The Drupal text editor allows you to format text and add links, images, and other media. For static pages like ‘About Us’ or ‘Contact,’ ensure the information is clear and concise.
    • Utilize the formatting options to structure your content effectively, using headings, bullet points, and paragraphs to enhance readability.

4. Set the URL Alias (Optional)

    • Under the URL alias section in the sidebar, you can specify a custom URL alias for your page. This is optional, but setting user-friendly URLs for static pages (e.g., about-us for an About Us page) is good practice.

5. Manage Menu Settings (Optional)

    • If you want your static page to be accessible through the main menu, scroll to the Menu settings Check the box for Provide a menu link, and then fill in the Menu link title, which is the text that will appear in the menu. Choose the parent item under which this page should appear, and set the weight to influence its order among other menu items.

6. Publish Your Page

    • By default, new content in Drupal is set to unpublished. To make your static page live and accessible to visitors, ensure the Published option is checked under Publishing options.
  • Review your page for accuracy, and then click on the Save Your static page is now created and, if selected, added to your site’s navigation menu.

7. View Your Page

    • After saving, you’ll be taken to the newly created page, where you can see how it looks on the front end. Check to make sure all elements are displaying correctly and that the page appears as part of the specified menu, if applicable.

Creating a Blog in Drupal

A blog is a dynamic way to communicate with your audience and share insights, news, and updates. Drupal’s flexible content management system makes it an excellent platform for hosting a blog.

Step-by-Step Guide to Adding Blog Posts

1. Enable the Blog Module

    • Before starting blogging, you must ensure the Blog module is enabled. Navigate to Extend in the Drupal admin menu, search for the Blog module, check its box, and then click the Install This module provides a predefined content type and listing for blog posts.

2. Add a New Blog Post

    • Go to Content > Add content > Blog post to create a blog post. You will be directed to the blog post creation page.

3. Fill in the Blog Post Details

    • Title: Enter a compelling title for your blog post. This is the first thing your readers will see, so make it engaging.
    • Body: This is where you add the content of your post. The Drupal text editor allows for rich text formatting. You can add images, videos, and links to enhance your blog post. Utilize headings, lists, and quotes to structure your content effectively.

4. Set Up Categories (Tags)

    • If the Taxonomy module is enabled and configured for blog posts, you can assign categories or tags to your posts. This helps organize your content and makes it easier for readers to find related posts.

5. Specify the Blog Post’s URL Alias (Optional)

    • You can set a custom alias for your blog post in the URL alias section. A user-friendly URL can improve how your post is perceived by search engines and readers (e.g., blog/my-first-post).

6. Adjust Publishing Options

    • In the Publishing options section, you can control the visibility of your post. To make your blog post publicly accessible, check the Published If your theme and configuration support these features, you can also promote your post to the front page or make it sticky at the top of lists.

7. Preview and Save Your Blog Post

    • Use the Preview button to see how your blog post will look once published. This is a good opportunity to check for any formatting issues or typos. Once you’re satisfied with the preview, click the Save button to publish your blog post.

8. View Your Post            

    • After saving, you’ll be directed to the published blog post. Verify that everything appears as expected and your post is now part of your site’s blog.

Tutorial 11: Resources for Further Learning

Official Drupal Documentation and Guides

Navigating Drupal.org Documentation

The official Drupal documentation on Drupal.org is an extensive repository of guides, tutorials, and API references designed to support Drupal users and developers.

Here’s how to make the most of these resources:

1. Start with the Documentation Landing Page

2. Drupal User Guide

  • Ideal for beginners, the Drupal User Guide offers a comprehensive introduction to using Drupal, covering topics from installation and content management to site administration. It’s structured to help new users get up and running with a Drupal site.

3. Developer Guide

  • For those looking to delve into module development, theming, or contributing to Drupal core, the Developer Guide provides in-depth tutorials, best practices, and API references. It’s a valuable resource for enhancing your technical skills.

4. API Reference

  • The API Reference section is essential for developers working on custom solutions. It details Drupal’s API functions, classes, and interfaces, complete with explanations and examples.

5. How to Find Guides for Different Skill Levels and Needs

  • Search Functionality: Use the search bar to find specific topics or solutions. You can filter search results by content type (e.g., community documentation, project page) to narrow your findings.
  • Task-based Navigation: Documentation is organized by tasks, such as “Build,” “Extend,” and “Administer,” helping you find relevant guides based on what you’re trying to accomplish.
  • Community Documentation: Explore community-contributed documentation for diverse perspectives and solutions to common challenges. Community docs can be particularly useful for real-world tips and use cases.

6. Stay Updated and Engaged

  • The Drupal community continuously updates and expands the documentation to reflect new developments and best practices. Regularly visiting the documentation pages can help you stay current.
  • Consider contributing to the documentation. Contributing can range from correcting typos and updating screenshots to writing new tutorials. It’s a great way to give back to the community and enhance everyone’s learning resources.

The official Drupal documentation is a rich, evolving resource that supports continuous learning and skill development. Whether building your first Drupal site or developing complex modules, the documentation offers the guidance you need to succeed with Drupal.

The Drupal community is an open and welcoming space, so don’t hesitate to seek help in forums, Drupal Slack channels, or local meetups as you continue your Drupal journey.

Drupal Tutorials and Online Courses

Recommended Tutorials and Courses

1. Drupalize.Me

  • Specializing in Drupal, Me offers an extensive library of tutorials covering every aspect of Drupal development, including site building, theming, module development, and backend programming. It’s known for high-quality, comprehensive tutorials created by Drupal experts.
  • Best For: Users of all levels, especially those seeking comprehensive coverage of Drupal topics.

2. Udemy

  • Udemy features a wide range of Drupal courses for beginners and advanced users. Courses on Udemy cover topics like Drupal basics, theme and module development, and specific projects like building e-commerce sites with Drupal. Since various instructors create courses, it’s beneficial to read reviews and check ratings before enrolling.
  • Best For: Learners looking for course options that include lifetime access and a more traditional learning structure.

3. Coursera

  • Coursera offers courses in partnership with universities and colleges, including some that focus on web development with Drupal. These courses may be part of larger web development specializations and often include peer-reviewed assignments, hands-on projects, and certificates of completion.
  • Best For: Those looking for academically structured courses that often include certification.

4. LinkedIn Learning (formerly Lynda.com):

  • LinkedIn Learning provides several Drupal courses that range from beginner to advanced levels. Topics include Drupal fundamentals, theming, layout design, and more. Industry professionals teach courses and include video tutorials along with exercise files.
  • Best For: Professionals looking to add Drupal skills to their portfolio and those who appreciate courses that include quizzes and practice exercises.

5. YouTube

Tips for Selecting the Right Course for Your Needs

1. Identify Your Learning Objectives

  • Before selecting a course, clearly define what you want to learn or achieve. Whether mastering module development, understanding theming, or getting to grips with site building, having clear objectives will help you choose the most relevant course.

2. Check the Course Content and Structure

  • Review the course syllabus to ensure it covers the topics you’re interested in. Look for courses that provide a mix of theoretical knowledge and practical exercises.

3. Consider the Instructor’s Expertise

  • Research the instructor’s background and experience in Drupal development. Instructors with real-world experience can provide valuable insights and best practices.

4. Read Reviews and Ratings

  • Checking reviews and ratings from past students can give you an idea of the course quality and what to expect.

5. Look for Updated Material

  • Drupal is continuously evolving, so ensure the course content is updated and relevant to the Drupal version you’re using or learning.

Combining the official Drupal documentation with structured online courses and tutorials can accelerate your learning process and gain a more comprehensive understanding of Drupal. Whether you’re a beginner looking to build foundational knowledge or an experienced developer seeking to specialize further, there’s a course out there to meet your learning needs.

Drupal Community and Forums

The Drupal community is a vibrant and welcoming network of users, developers, designers, and enthusiasts who share a common interest in Drupal. This community is a source of invaluable support and learning and plays an important role in the ongoing development and improvement of Drupal.

Engaging with the Drupal community can enhance your knowledge, provide opportunities to contribute, and connect you with like-minded individuals.

Engaging with the Drupal Community

The Drupal community offers various platforms and channels for engagement, from online forums and Slack channels to local meetups and global events.

Importance of the Community for Support and Learning

    • Support: Community forums and issue queues on Drupal.org are excellent resources for getting help with specific problems or challenges you’re facing with Drupal.
    • Learning: The community contributes a wealth of tutorials, documentation, and discussions that can help your learning process.
    • Networking: Engaging with the community can connect you with experienced professionals and mentors who can offer guidance and support.

How to Participate in Drupal Forums

    • The Drupal forums on Drupal.org offer a space to ask questions, share insights, and discuss various topics related to Drupal. To participate, create a Drupal.org account, browse the forum topics to find areas of interest, and start engaging by asking questions or answering others.

Engaging in Drupal Slack Channels

    • The Drupal Slack workspace provides real-time communication channels where you can discuss, share, and collaborate with community members. Join the Drupal Slack workspace by signing up on Drupal.org, then explore and participate in channels that align with your interests or areas where you seek help.

Attending Local Meetups and DrupalCamps

    • Local Drupal meetups and DrupalCamps are organized by community members around the world. These events are great for learning new skills, networking, and sharing your experiences with Drupal. Find upcoming events on Drupal.org or through local Drupal community groups.

Contributing to Drupal

    • Contributing to Drupal is a rewarding way to give back to the community. Contributions can take many forms, from developing modules and themes to helping with documentation, translation, and marketing. Start by identifying areas where you feel you can contribute, and don’t hesitate to contact the community for guidance on getting started.


The Drupal community is central to the platform’s success and evolution. By participating in forums, Slack channels, and local meetups and contributing to the project, you gain valuable knowledge and experience and also have the opportunity to shape the future of Drupal.

Whether you’re just starting or looking to deepen your engagement with Drupal, the community is an essential resource and welcoming space for everyone.

Keeping Up with Drupal Updates

Staying current with Drupal developments is crucial for anyone using or developing with Drupal, whether you’re managing a website, developing modules, or theming. The Drupal community continuously improves the platform, adds new features, and addresses security concerns. Keeping up with these changes ensures your site remains secure and efficient and takes advantage of the latest Drupal advancements.

Following Drupal News and Updates

  • org: The official Drupal website is the primary source for announcements, including core updates, security advisories, and new initiatives. Regularly visiting Drupal.org can keep you informed about important developments.
  • Drupal Newsletters: Subscribing to Drupal newsletters, such as the Drupal Association newsletter, provides curated updates and news directly to your inbox.
  • Drupal Planet: Drupal Planet aggregates blog posts from various Drupal community websites, offering insights, tutorials, and Drupal news. It’s a great resource for learning about diverse topics within the Drupal ecosystem.
  • Social Media and Drupal Slack: Following Drupal on social media platforms (like Twitter) and joining the Drupal Slack workspace can help you stay connected with real-time discussions and updates from the community.

Best Practices for Upgrading Your Drupal Skills

  • Participate in Training and Workshops: Attend Drupal training sessions, workshops, and webinars. These events, often available both online and in-person, can provide deep dives into specific topics and hands-on learning experiences.
  • Contribute to Drupal: Engaging with the Drupal project by contributing code and documentation or participating in issue queues allows you to learn by doing and exposes you to best practices and new techniques.
  • Join Drupal Events: Local meetups, DrupalCamps, and DrupalCon offer valuable opportunities to learn from sessions and connect with experienced Drupal professionals who can share their knowledge and insights.
  • Continuous Learning: Use online learning platforms, Drupal tutorials, and courses to broaden your understanding of Drupal. Dedicating regular time to learning helps you gradually build and upgrade your skills.
  • Experiment on Your Projects: Apply what you learn by experimenting on your projects. Trying out new modules, exploring different ways to solve problems, and building projects with the latest Drupal features can deepen your understanding and skills.

Staying informed about Drupal developments and actively seeking opportunities to upgrade your skills are key to thriving in the Drupal community. As Drupal continues to evolve, ongoing learning and adaptation are essential.

By leveraging the resources and practices suggested above, you can ensure that your Drupal knowledge remains current and comprehensive, enabling you to build better, more secure, and innovative websites with Drupal.

Tutorial 2: Basic Site Building in Drupal

Creating Main Menu in Drupal

Menus in Drupal are a crucial part of site structure and user navigation. The main menu typically appears across the top of your site and includes links to major sections. Drupal 10 allows you to easily create, manage, and customize menus.

Step-by-Step Guide to Creating Your Main Menu

1. Access the Menu Management Area

    • After logging into your Drupal site, navigate to Structure in the main administration menu. Then, select Menus. Here, you’ll see a list of menus currently defined on your site.

2. Edit the Main Menu

    • You’ll find the Main navigation menu, which is Drupal’s default main menu. Click on Edit menu next to it to start adding your menu items.

3. Add a Menu Item

    • Click on the + Add link to add a new item to your main menu. You’ll be prompted to enter the Menu link title (the text appearing in the menu) and the Link (the path or URL the menu item will lead to). For internal paths, you can simply enter the node or path alias (e.g., node/1 for the homepage if it’s the first node you created). For external links, enter the full URL, including http:// or https://.

4. Configure the Menu Item

    • In the Menu link title field, enter the name of the menu item as you want it to appear on your site.
    • In the Link field, enter the corresponding path or URL.
    • You can also set additional options, such as opening the link in a new tab or defining attributes, under Show advanced options.

5. Save the Menu Item

    • After filling in the details for your menu item, click Save to add it to your main menu. Repeat this process for each item you want to add to your main menu.

6. Reorder Menu Items

    • Drupal allows you to reorder your menu items using a drag-and-drop interface. On the Edit menu page for your main menu, simply click and hold the crosshair icon next to any menu item and drag it to its new position.

7. Save Your Configuration

    • After adding and organizing your menu items, make sure to click the Save button at the bottom of the Edit menu page to apply your changes.

Creating Blocks & Regions in Drupal

Step-by-Step Guide to Creating Blocks and Defining Regions

1. Access the Block Layout

    • To start working with blocks, navigate to the Structure menu in the Drupal administration area and select Block layout. This page displays the regions defined by your site’s theme and the blocks currently assigned to each region.

2. Identify Your Theme’s Regions

    • At the top of the Block layout page, you can select Demonstrate block regions (YourThemeName) to see the regions available in your current theme visually. This is helpful when deciding where you want to place your new block.

3. Add a New Block

    • To add a new block, click on the + Place block button next to the region where you want to add your block. You can place blocks in any defined region of your theme.

4. Configure the Block

    • After clicking + Place block, you’ll see a list of available block types. Choose the block type you want to add, then click the Place block button next to it.
    • On the next screen, configure your block settings. This includes the block’s title, visibility settings (where the block should appear based on paths, content types, roles, etc.), and other specific settings depending on the block type.
    • For custom blocks, you may need to add content or configure specific options for that block type.

5. Assign to a Region

    • During the block configuration, ensure you select the correct region from the Region dropdown if you haven’t done so already. This determines where the block will be displayed on your site.

6. Save the Block

    • After configuring your block and assigning it to a region, click the Save block Your block is now placed in the selected region of your site.

7. Reorder Blocks within Regions

    • Back on the Block layout page, you can reorder blocks within regions using the drag-and-drop interface. Click and hold the crosshair icon next to a block’s name, then drag it to its new position.
    • Click on the Save blocks button at the bottom of the page to save your changes.

Managing Themes and Appearance in Drupal

Choosing a Theme

1. Consider Your Site’s Needs

    • Assess your site’s purpose and the user experience you want to provide. Consider features like responsive design for mobile devices, customization options, and whether the theme matches your content structure.

2. Explore Drupal Themes

    • Visit the official Drupal Themes directory on org. You can filter themes based on stability, core compatibility, and other features. Reviewing the theme’s maintenance and development status can also provide valuable insights.

3. Preview Themes

    • Many themes offer demos or screenshots. Take the time to preview these to understand how your site might look and feel with the theme applied.

Installing a New Theme

1. Download the Theme

    • Once you’ve chosen a theme, download it from org or another reputable source. Themes can come as zip files that you can upload directly to your Drupal site.

2. Install Through the Drupal Interface

    • Navigate to Appearance in your Drupal admin menu, then click on + Install new theme. You can upload the theme’s zip file here. Alternatively, you can use a URL for the theme.

3. Enable and Set as Default

    • After uploading, you’ll need to enable the theme. Find it in the list under Appearance, click Install, and set it as default next to the theme’s name to activate it on your site.

Customizing Themes

1. Access Theme Settings

    • With your theme installed and set as default, click on the Settings button next to its name under Appearance. Here, you’ll find customizable options provided by the theme.

2. Modify Theme Settings

    • Themes offer various customization settings, such as color schemes, font choices, logo settings, and more. Adjust these settings to align with your branding and desired look. The availability of these options varies by theme.

3. Use Sub-Themes

    • Some themes support using sub-themes, which allow you to make more extensive customizations without altering the original theme. This is particularly useful for future updates, as customizations won’t be overwritten.

4. Create a Custom CSS File

    • Consider adding a custom CSS file to your theme for more detailed customizations. This requires a basic understanding of CSS and how to link the CSS file to your theme. Custom CSS allows you to precisely adjust styles beyond what’s available in the theme settings.