Flutter widgets are divided into several categories, each serving different aspects of UI construction, such as layout, presentation, and interaction.

Layout Widgets

Layout widgets are used to structure the visual aspect of your app. They control how other widgets are displayed on the screen, including their size, position, and arrangement.

  • Row and Column: These widgets allow you to arrange other widgets horizontally (Row) or vertically (Column). They are versatile and commonly used for most layout needs.
  • Stack: It allows for the overlapping of widgets. A Stack widget can layer widgets on top of each other, which is useful for creating effects like badges or floating buttons.
  • GridView: Perfect for creating grid layouts, similar to a table or a collection of elements arranged in rows and columns.
  • ListView: It is ideal for displaying a scrolling list of elements vertically or horizontally.

Text and Image Widgets

Displaying text and images is fundamental to most apps. Flutter provides widgets specifically designed for these purposes.


The Text widget displays a string of text with single or multiple styles. It’s highly customizable, allowing you to adjust the font, size, weight, and alignment.

  ‘Hello, Flutter!’,
  style: TextStyle(fontSize: 24, fontWeight: FontWeight.bold),


The Image widget displays an image. Flutter supports a range of image sources, including network images, local assets, and more.


Container and Padding

The Container widget is a versatile decoration widget that can be used to style its child widget with colors, borders, margins, padding, and more. It’s useful for creating custom shapes, providing padding, or aligning content.


Padding is used to create space around the inside of a container. It’s useful for spacing out widgets from their parent or from each other.

  padding: EdgeInsets.all(8.0),
  color: Colors.blue,
  child: Text(‘Padded Text’),


Margins create space around the outside of a container. Use the margin property of the Container widget to set it.

  margin: EdgeInsets.all(8.0),
  color: Colors.red,
  child: Text(‘Text with Margin’),

Navigation and Routing

Basic Navigation

The simplest form of navigation involves pushing and popping routes on the navigation stack.

Pushing a New Screen

  MaterialPageRoute(builder: (context) => NewScreen()),

Popping a Screen


Routes and Navigator

For more advanced navigation scenarios, Flutter uses named routes, which can be defined in the MaterialApp widget.

Define the Routes

  initialRoute: ‘/’,
  routes: {
    ‘/’: (context) => HomeScreen(),
    ‘/details’: (context) => DetailsScreen(),

Navigate to a Named Route

Navigator.pushNamed(context, ‘/details’);

Passing Data Between Screens

When pushing a new screen, you can pass data directly to the constructor of the widget you’re navigating to.

    builder: (context) => DetailsScreen(data: ‘Some data’),

Passing Data with Named Routes

For named routes, you can pass arguments using the arguments parameter of Navigator.pushNamed.

  arguments: ‘Some data’,

To receive the data in the DetailsScreen, you would extract the arguments from the ModalRoute:

class DetailsScreen extends StatelessWidget {
  Widget build(BuildContext context) {
    // Extract the arguments from the current ModalRoute settings and cast them to the correct type
    final String data = ModalRoute.of(context).settings.arguments;

    return Scaffold(
      appBar: AppBar(
        title: Text(‘Details Screen’),
      body: Center(
        child: Text(data),

This setup enables the flexible and efficient passing of data between screens, enhancing the interactivity and functionality of your Flutter app.

State Management

Introduction to State Management

State management refers to how you design, manage, and expose the state of your app’s data to its UI in a way that is easy to reason about. State can include user preferences, app settings, cache data, or any other information that needs to be preserved during navigation and between app sessions.

Why State Management?

Proper state management helps in creating a robust app architecture that separates the app’s logic from its UI, making it easier to debug, test, and scale your app.


ScopedModel is a straightforward library that allows widgets to access shared data models from their ancestor in the widget tree, facilitating easy data passing and state management across the app.

  • How it Works: You wrap your app in a ScopedModel widget, passing it a model. Descendant widgets that need access to the model can use the ScopedModelDescendant widget to rebuild when the model updates.
  • Use Case: ScopedModel is suitable for simpler apps with a less complex data model that needs to be shared across many parts of the app.


Provider is a recommended approach by the Flutter team for state management. It simplifies data flow in your application and provides a scalable way to manage the app state.

  • How it Works: Provider works by exposing data and services to the widget tree, allowing widgets to subscribe to updates. It leverages the concept of “listening” to objects and rebuilding widgets when necessary.
  • Use Case: Provider is versatile and can handle various state management needs, from simple to complex scenarios. It’s particularly useful for medium to large apps requiring scalable state management solutions.


Bloc (Business Logic Component) is an advanced state management library that separates business logic from presentation logic, focusing on stream-based state management.

  • How it Works: Bloc relies on streams and sinks to manage the app’s state. It uses Events to trigger state changes, which are then output as States through Streams. Widgets listen to these state changes and rebuild accordingly.
  • Use Case: Bloc is ideal for complex apps with extensive business logic, requiring a clean separation between the app’s data layer and UI. It’s great for apps that need to maintain clear, testable, and scalable code.

Choosing a State Management Approach

Selecting the right state management solution depends on several factors, including your app’s complexity, your development team’s experience, and your project’s specific requirements.

  • For Simplicity: If you’re building a simple app or just starting with Flutter, consider using Provider for its balance between simplicity and flexibility.
  • For Medium to Complex Apps: For apps with more complex data flows or larger scale projects, Bloc offers a structured approach that keeps your codebase more organized and maintainable.
  • Experiment and Learn: Each project has unique requirements, and there’s no one-size-fits-all solution. Experiment with different approaches to understand their strengths and how they fit into your project.